Containing the Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Prognosis and Treatment of Diseases
Accompanied by
A select Collection of Formulae
And a Glossary of Terms

By Robert Hooper, MD

Licentiate in Physic of the University of Oxford and the Royal College of Physicians in London, Physician in the St. Mary-le-bone Infirmary and Lecturer in Medicine in London.
A New Edition

Printed for
John Murray, 32, Fleet Street; W. Blackwood, Edinburgh; and J. Cumming, Dublin


Dr. Hooper uses in his book the disease classifications advocated in Dr. Cullen's Nosologica Methodica. There were four classes as described below with my explanatory comments. The system used is similar to that used by Linnaeus in placing plants and animals into classes, orders, genera and species. I have added the numbering system for convenience.

Many of the disorders described would now be classed as symptoms rather than diseases in their own right. For example the spitting of blood (haemoptysis) might be caused by pulmonary tuberculosis. The classification brings together some some odd bed-fellows. Under spasmodic disorders one had cardia arrhythmia, whooping cough, asthma, diabetes, diarrhoea and hydrophobia.


A. Pyrexiae Febrile diseases (fevers)
B. Neuroses Nervous diseases
C. Cachexiae Cachectic disease (now means wasting)
D. Locales Local diseases


Characterised by increased heat, frequency of pulse, accompanied by a disturbance in many of the functions and diminution of strength, especially of the limbs. This class was divided into the following orders:

A.1 Febres Fevers
A.2 Exanthemata Eruptive Fevers
A.3 Phlegmasiae Inflammations
A.4 Haemorrhagiae Haemorrhages
A.5 Profluvia Fluxes

A.1. Fevers

This order was divided into the continued and intermittent genera:

A.1.1 Continued Fevers

A.1.1.1 Synocha Inflammatory Fever. (This section is shown in full to give and indication of the nature of the other articles..)

Increased pulse and heat, highly coloured urine with red sediment, no disturbance of mind, no diminution of muscular power.


Predisposing, Plethoric habit of body, strong muscular system, a good and unimpaired constitution.
Exciting: Sudden alteration of temperature, violent exercise, intemperance, suppression of evacuations, strong passions of mind, too frequent use of vinous or spirituous liquors.


1. To lower excessive action by removing all stimuli of mind and body.
2. Diminishing the quantity of circulating fluids and lowering the tone of the vascular system by bleeding, purgatives, laxative clysters, diaphoretics.
At the commencement a copious and rapid evacuation of the blood is absolutely necessary and subsequent smaller bleedings according to the strength and hardness of the pulse and the urgency of the symptom.

Saline Purging Draughts: magnesium sulphate, syrupi aurantii, sodium sulphate, potassium tartrate.
Purging Powders: rhubarb & potassium tartrate, jalap & potassium hydrogen tartrate, rhubarb and sodium sulphate.
Saline Sudorific powders: Potassium hydrogen tartrate and antimony; powdered antimony and potassium nitrate.

Common Saline Draughts:

1. Potassium subcarbonate, syrupi aurantii, aquae cinnamonii, succi limonis recentis quantum sufficit ad perfectam saturationem alkali.
2. With Sodium subcarbonate
3. Ammonium acetate, Potassae nitratix, syrupi auranti
4. Potassae supertartaris, sodae borates, aquae cinnomomi.

Sudorific Mixtures.

Liquoris antimonii tartarisati, Potassae nitratis, aquae menthae viridis, syrupi rosae.
Or, liquoris ammoniae acetates, potassae nitratis, misturae camphorae, syrupi rosae.
Or, Sodium subcarbonate, succi limonis ad alkali saturationem, misturae camphorae, potassae nitratis, syrupi rhaeados.

3rd Element of Treatment: cool air, sprinkling floor with vinegar and water, frequent draughts of cold acidulated liquors or common water, sponging body with water and vinegar when heat of body is above natural and no profuse sweating.

If the pulse sink and extremities cold use sinapisms to the feet, cordials, especially camphire and ether. Misturae camphorae, spiritus aetheris compositi, spiritus ammoniae aromatici, syrupi aurantit.

A.1.1.2 Typhus Nervous Fever
A.1.1.3 Synochus Mixed Fever

A.1.2 Intermittent Fevers

A.1.2.1 Quotidiana Every-day ague
A.1.2.2 Tertiana Three-day ague
A.1.2.3 Quartana Fourth-day ague

A.2 Exanthemata or Eruptive Fevers

These are contagious diseases, attacking a person only once in his life; beginning with fever and at a definite time, eruptions, often numerous and small scattered over the skin. The order was divided into the following genera:

A.2.1 Variola Small-pox
A.2.2 Varicella Chicken-pox
A.2.3 Rubeola Measles
A.2.4 Scarlatina Scarlet Fever
A.2.5 Pestis Plague
A.2.6 Erysipelas St. Anthony's Fire
A.2.7 Miliaria Miliary Fever
A.2.8 Urticaria Nettle Rash
A.2.9 Pemphigus Vesicular Fever
A.2.10 Aphtha Aphthous Fever (Thrush)

A.3 Phlegmasiae or Inflammations

These are generally characterised as involving synocha fever with local inflammation and pain, the function of the part being at the same time injured. When blood is drawn by venesection it exhibits a buffy coat. There were 20 genera listed according to the organ affected:

A.3.1 Phrenitis (Brain)
A.3.2 Ophthalmitis (Eye)
A.3.3 Otitis (Ear)
A.3.4 Glossitis (Tongue)
A.3.5 Cynanche (Throat)
A.3.6 Pleurtitis (Pleura)
A.3.7 Pneumonitis (Lung)
A.3.8 Carditis (Heart)
A.3.9 Diaphragmatitis (Diaphragm)
A.3.10 Hepatitis (Liver)
A.3.11 Gastritis (Stomach)
A.3.12 Enteritis (Bowe)l
A.3.13 Splenitis (Spleen)
A.3.14 Nephritis (Kidney)
A.3.15 Cystitis (Bladder)
A.3.16 Hysteritis (Womb)
A.3.17 Prostitis (Prostate gland)
A.3.18 Peritonitis Peritoneum, (the abdominal cavity)
A.3.19 Podagra (Gout)
A.3.20 Rheumatismus (Rheumatism)

A.4 Haemorrhagiae or discharges of blood.

These were divided into the following genera according to the organ affected:

A.4.1 Epistaxis (Nose)
A.4.2 Haemoptysis (Spitting of blood).
A.4.3 Haematemesis (Vomiting blood)
A.4.4 Haemorrhoids (Piles)
A.4.5 Menorrhagia Flooding (excessive menstrual bleeding)
A.4.6 Hematuria (Passing blood in the urine.)

A.5 Profluvia or Fluxes with Fever.

This order was divided into two genera:

A.5.1 Catarrhus (Catarrh or Cold)
A.5.2 Dysenteria (Dysentry)

The genus of Catarrhus was divided into two species: Catarrhus a frigore or the Common Cold and Catarrhus contagiosus, or Influenza.


The neuroses were defined by Hooper as "preternatural affections of sense or motion without any idiopathic fever or primary local affection". They were divided into four orders.

B.1  Comata Soporose Affections
B.2  Adynamiae Adynamial Affections
B.3  Spasmi Spasmodic Diseases
B.4  Vesaniae Diseases of impaired judgement.

B.1 Comata or Soporose Affections

Involving the diminution of voluntary motion, with sleep or a privation of sense, were divided into two genera:

B.1.1. Apoplexia (Apoplexy)
B.1.2. Paralysis (Palsy)

Apoplexy was further divided into nine species:

B.1.1.1 Apoplexia sanguinea, with signs of universal plethora, and chiefly of the head. (stroke)
B.1.1.2 Apoplexia serosa, occuring for the most part in the leucophlegmatic bodies of old men.
B.1.1.3 Apoplexia hydrocephalica, coming on by degrees; affecting infants and children, first with lassitude, a degree of fever and headache; afterwards with a slow pulse, dilation of the pupil and drowsiness.
B.1.1.4 Apoplexia atrabilaria, in a person of a melacholic disposition.
B.1.1.5 Apoplexia traumatica, from external violence applied to the head.
B.1.1.6 Apoplexia venenata, from sedatives externally or internally applied.
B.1.1.7 Apoplexia mentalis, from affections of the mind.
B.1.1.8 Apoplexia cataleptica in which the muscles obey the motion of the joints when influenced by force externally applied.
B.1.1.9 Apoplexia suffocata, by suffocation.

Paralysis was divided into four species:

B.1.2.1 Paralysis partialis, paralysis of certain muscles only.
B.1.2.2 Paralysis hemiplegica, affecting one side of the body.
B.1.2.3 Paralysis paraplegica, affecting one half of the body taken transversely
B.1.2.4 Paralysis venenata, caused by poisoning.

B.2 Adynamiae or Adynamial Affections

These were defined as conditions involving the diminution of involuntary motions either vital or natural. They were divided into four genera:

B.2.1 Syncope or fainting
B.2.2 Dyspepsia or indigestion
B.2.3 Hypochondriasis, vapours or low spirits.
B.2.4 Chlorosis or retention of the menses. (can be a consequence of anaemia)

It is of interest that among the three species of syncope listed one is Syncope anginosa or angina pectoris, which is now classified as a cardiovascular disorder from its origins, not a fainting from its results!

B.3 Spasmi or Spasmodic Diseases

These are disorders characterised by irregular motions of the muscles. They were divided into three groups of genera according to the function affected.

In the animal function

B.3.1 Tetanus (Rigid spasm)
B.3.2 Convulsio (Convulsions)
B.3.3 Chorea (St. Vitus' Dance)
B.3.4 Raphania (Raphany)
B.3.5 Epilepsia (Epilepsy)

In the vital function

B.3.6 Palpitatio (Palpitation of the heart)
B.3.7 Asthma
B.3.8 Dyspnoea (Difficulty in breathing)
B.3.9 Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

In the natural function

B.3.10 Pyrosis (The water brash)
B.3.11 Colica (Colic)
B.3.12 Cholera
B.3.13 Diarrhoea
B.3.14 Diabetes (Defined as Immoderate flow of urine)
B.3.15 Hysteria
B.3.16 Hydrophobia

B.4 Vesaniae or disorders of judgement

These are conditions without any pyrexia or coma and were classified into four genera:

B.4.1 Amentia (Fatuity)
B.4.2 Melancholia
B.4.3 Mania (Furious madness)
B.4.4 Oneirodynia (Disturbed sleep)


Cachexiae were defined as diseases from depraved habit. Cachexia is now used to indicate a wasting syndrome involving excessive loss of body weight as a result of a disorder such as cancer. Dr. Hooper defines three orders of cachexiae:

C.1 Marcores (Emaciations)
C.2 Intumescentiae (Swellings)
C.3 Impetigines (Skin disorders)

C.1 The Marcores

These conditions were divided into genera as follows:

C.1.1 Phthysis (Pulmonary consumption)
C.1.2 Tabes Wasting away with fever ( Tabes dorsalis is a tubercular infection of the spine. Tabes mesenterica is a tubercular infection of the lymph glands in the abdomen.)
C.1.3 Atrophia (Emaciation without fever)

C.2. The Intumescentiae

These were described as tumours of the whole or greater part of the body and were divided into genera as follows:

Adipose Swellings

C.2.1 Polysarcia (Obesity)

Flatulent Swellings

C.2.2 Pneumatosis (Windy swelling or emphysema)
C.2.3 Tympanites (Drum belly)
C.2.4 Physometra


C.2.5 Anascara (Dropsy of the flesh)
C.2.6 Hydrocephalus (Water in the head)
C.2.7 Hydrorachitis (Water in the spine)
C.2.8 Hydrothorax (Water in the chest)
C.2.9 Ascites (Dropsy of the belly)
C.2.10 Hydrometra (Dropsy of the womb)
C.2.11 Hydrocele (Dropsy of the testicles)

Swelling of the solids

C.2.12 Physconia
C.2.13 Rachitis (Rickets:- Vitamin D deficiency)

C.3 Impetigines

These are described as cachexiae chiefly affecting the skin and external parts of the body and were divided into the following orders:

C.3.1 Scrofula (tubercular infection of lymphatic glands particularly those in the neck.)
C.3.2 Syphilis (Venereal disease)
C.3.3 Scorbutus (Scurvy - Vitamin C deficiency)
C.3.4 Elephantiasis (Elephant skin
C.3.5 Lepra (Leprosy)
C.3.6 Frambaesia (Raspberry like eruption)
C.3.6 Trichoma
C.3.7 Icterus (Jaundice)

Class D: Local Diseases

Hooper's fourth class of disease was "Local" but he does not give any examples.


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